Principles of chemistry, biochemistry and technical physics
The teaching educational scheme includes an introductory part focused on the molecular and physical-chemical principles of interaction between ingredients and on the study methodology of the combination of ingredients in the preparation of a recipe. All with a view to providing the basic tools to be adopted in the study of overall organoleptic properties.
The second part of the course is dedicated to examining the individual ingredients, including additives, and the innovative systems that provide innovative systems for the treatment of ingredients. The discussion must include a systematic study, even if not exhaustive, of the recipes in order to provide the three-year graduate with a skill that can be used in the field of innovative catering and in respect of the Italian culinary tradition.
The course introduces a variety of scientific principles that are the foundation of cooking, the culinary preparation and enjoyment of food. Will be dealt with various subjects of biology, chemistry and applied physics. These include knowledge of the physical-chemical functional properties of the ingredients, their interaction and the effect of the temperature during cooking, the physiological role of the senses and intellectual control and in the formulation of recipes, geographical and cultural influences and the rationale for food preparation.
At the end of the course, students will be able to:
• develop the acquisitions of the scientific basis on the preparation of various recipes;
• developt their own recipes incorporating some of the scientific principles in new dishes;
• recognize the influence of the ingredients on the perception of the different senses, and deduce the result at the end of the culinary preparation;
• be able to consider and then the kitchen as an integral art of science.
• La scienza in cucina. Piccolo trattato di gastronomia molecolare. Autore This Hervé. 2010. Editore: Dedalo (collana La scienza è facile)
• Manuale di cucina molecolare. di Anne Cazor, Christine Lienard. Editore: Bibliotheca Culinaria
• Belitz,Grosch, Food Chemistry (Springer)
• Appunti presi autonomamente a lezione.
• Materiale didattico fornito dal docente
Verification of learning takes place through continuous questions during the course and a final exam.
• The objective of the test will be to evaluate the ability to connect all the knowledge acquired to solve food technology problems.
• The exam will take place through an oral test.
• The clarity of exposition and the property of language are evaluated. In case of failure to reach a sufficient level of learning, the student is invited to investigate the specific topics in which he / she is lacking, also making use of further explanations on the part of the teacher
• The exam will last approximately 30 minutes.
• At least one question is asked about each topic of the program carried out.
Basic macromolecule of food: water, fat, protein and carbohydrates. Chemistry and physics of molecules: interaction and modifiable factors that affect the interaction acid / base, oxidation and changes related to heat and cold.
Backgrounds on taste, flavor and other sensory characteristics. Physical and chemical characteristics of dairy products such as milk, cream and yoghurt.
Effect of freshness on coagulation of egg proteins in function of time , temperature and pH de . Factors influencing the volume and stability of the foams egg. Changes of muscle proteins on the basis of various preparation methods : roasting , frying , grilling , stewing and braising . Will be discussed in the methods of softening of the less tender cuts and studying factors such as the Maillard reaction , which contribute to the development of flavor. Physical and chemical changes that occur during storage and processing of various types of fruits and vegetables. Structure of carbohydrates and proteins of plants and knowledge in the application of heat and water or oil to change their properties . Enzymatic browning , the role of pH , osmosis, and other factors that affect the sensory characteristics of vegetable preparations . Factors affecting gelatinization various starches. Effect of heat and saturation of sugar crystallization Factors that influence the production of CO2 by the yeast and the effect on the protein structure of the flour to produce a baked product quality . Effect of various types of chemical leavening agents for the preparation of batters and cakes. Proving physics obtained by incorporating air into beaten egg whites , or through the steam produced by the melting of the fat in the pastry . Spherefiers, culinary process for shaping a liquid into spheres which visually and structurally similar to caviar.