Basics of physics. Direct and indirect measurements, fundamental and derived quantities, physical dimensions of the quantities, knowledge of International System of Units. Vectors and operations on vectors. Vector composition of forces. State changes and latent heats. First and second law of thermodynamics. Notes on elementary optical phenomena. Electrostatics and electrodynamics: Coulomb's law. Field and electric potential.
Mathematics bases. Monomials and polynomials. Decomposition into factors and algebraic fractions. Integer, fractional and real exponents. First and second degree equations. Equation systems. Inequalities. Logarithms (operations with logarithms). Logarithmic and exponential equations. Cartesian reference and coordinates of a point.
Introduction. Conformational analysis and stereochemistry. Main functional groups (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic compounds, alkyl halides, alcohols, thiols, ethers, carbonyl compounds, amines, carboxylic compounds). Molecules of biological interest (carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, amino acids).
The course should give basic knowledge of organic chemistry so that students will be able to acquire the fundamentals of basic, food and industrial microbiology, knowledge and skills related to vegetable and animal food production, knowledge and skills on traditional and innovative food technologies.
Knowledge and understanding. The student should know the fundamental principles of organic chemistry so that, starting from the study of functional groups in simple molecules, he will be able to understand the reactions that occur in biological systems and in food.
Ability to apply knowledge and understanding. The student should be able to assign IUPAC name to organic molecules, recognize the various types of chemical reactions and complete reaction schemes.
Autonomy of judgment. The student should be able to understand and critically discuss the mechanism of organic reactions.
Communication skills. The student should demonstrate ability to communicate with the correct terminology.
Learning ability. The student should be able to read, understand and comment on organic chemistry texts.
One of the following: McMurry, J. “Fondamenti di chimica organica”, Zanichelli, ISBN 9788808061317; McMurry, J. “Chimica organica. Un approccio biologico”, Zanichelli, ISBN 8808066932; Botta, B. “Chimica organica essenziale”, Edi-ermes, ISBN 9788870513547. Notes taken independently during the course.
The exam is a written test (time available: 75 minutes).
The purpose is evaluating the level of knowledge of the student, especially with respect to concepts fundamental for understanding the reactions that take place in biological systems and in food.
The exam consists of 36 multiple-choice questions, divided into two groups.
The first group is composed of 28 questions, on "General Organic Chemistry" (Topics 1-4; see Program); the second group consists of 8 questions on of "Bioorganic Chemistry" (Topic 5; see Program). To pass the test, the student must correctly answer at least 4 questions of the second group.
"1" to each correct answer;
"0" to each missing answer;
"0" to each wrong answer.
1 - Introduction. Carbon atom, sp3, sp2, sp hybridization. Intermolecular bonds: dipole-dipole, hydrogen, van der Waals bond. Elements of thermodynamics: enthalpy, entropy, free energy. Chemical kinetic: kinetic equation, activation energy, catalysis. Acidity, Brønsted and Lewis acid. 1 CFU.
2 - Alkanes. Nomenclature and physical properties. Cycloalkanes. Radical halogenation. Conformational analysis. Newman and Fischer formulas. Energy diagrams. Conformational analysis in linear and cyclic molecules. Stereochemistry. Optical activity, chirality. Enantiomers, diastereomers, meso structures. Configuration R,S and D,L. Resolution racemic mixtures. 1 CFU.
3 - Alkenes. Nomenclature and physical properties. Carbocations: structure and reactivity. Reactivity with: H2, HX (X = Br, Cl), H2O/H2SO4, X2 (X = Br, Cl), KMnO4, OsO4, peroxyacids. Allylic halogenations. Conjugated dienes: 1,2- and 1,4-addition. Alkynes. Nomenclature, reaction with H2. Aromatic compounds. Benzene. Aromaticity, Hückel rule. Resonance. Electrophilic aromatic substitution: nitration, sulfonation, halogenation, Friedel-Crafts acylation and alkylation. Benzene derivatives: structure and reactivity. Rate and regioselectivity. Inductive and conjugative effect. Oxidation of alkylbenzenes with KMnO4. Reduction of nitrobenzene with Fe/HCl. Alkyl halides. Reactions: SN1, SN2, E1, E2. Nucleophilicity, basicity. Grignard reagents. Alcohols and phenols. Nomenclature and physical properties. Acid-base reactions, oxidation, dehydration, chlorination and esterification reactions. Thiols. Ethers. Nomenclature and physical properties. Epoxides: ring-opening reactions. 1 CFU.
4 - Aldehydes and ketones. Nomenclature and physical properties. Reactivity with: H2, hydrides, Grignard reagents, HCN, H2O, ROH, NH2R. Aldehydes: oxidation. Amines. Nomenclature and physical properties. Basicity. Quaternary ammonium salts. Reaction of primary amines with HNO2. Diazonium salts. Carboxylic acids and derivatives. Nomenclature and physical properties. Acidity of carboxylic acids. Synthesis and reactions of acid chlorides, anhydrides, esters, amides. Saponification of esters. Reduction with LiAlH4. Amides, physical properties. Nitriles, acid and basic hydrolysis. Enols. Acidity of carbonyl compounds. Keto-enol tautomerism. Aldol and Claisen condensation. Bifunctional compounds. Amino acids, hydroxy acids, keto acids and dicarboxylic acids. Carbonyl compounds, decarboxylation. Acetoacetic and malonic ester synthesis. Heterocyclic compounds. Pyrrole: aromaticity, acidity and basicity, electrophilic aromatic substitution. Pyridine: basicity, nucleophilic and electrophilic aromatic substitution. Imidazole: acidity and basicity. Purine and pyrimidine. 1 CFU.
5- Carbohydrates. Classification. Monosaccharides. Glucose. Reaction of monosaccharides with: NH2NHPh, Br2, HNO3, NaBH4, ROH. Reducing sugars. Lengthening and shortening of the chain. Hemiacetals and acetals, alpha and beta anomers, mutarotation. Haworth and conformational formulas, furanose and pyranose forms. Mannose, galactose, fructose and ribose. Disaccharides: maltose, cellobiose, lactose and sucrose. Polysaccharides: starch and cellulose. Lipids. Fatty acids, autooxidation. Triglycerides, hydrolysis and hydrogenation. Natural and synthetic detergents, micelle formation. Phospholipids, formation of bilayers. Terpenes, isoprene unit. Steroids, nomenclature. Prostaglandins. Waxes. Nucleic acids. Nucleotides and nucleosides. Purine and pyrimidine bases. DNA and RNA. Amino acids and proteins. Amino acids: structure, titration, isoelectric point. Acidic and basic amino acids. Peptides: synthesis, protecting and activating groups. Analysis of peptides, determination of the amino acid N-and C-terminal Edman method, determination of the sequence. 1 CFU.
6 - Classroom exercises. Exercises will consist in the explanation of questions present in the written tests of the previous academic years. The questions, which will be available to students in ad