Basics of chemistry, organic chemistry and cellular biology.
68 hours =56 (lectures) + 12 (practical activities).
Biomolecules, structure and catalysis, main metabolic pathways in plants, other metabolic pathways, flow of genetic information.
Contents regarding metabolism of plants in comparison with the one of animals and humans, advisable for a food technologist, will be studied. Principles of enzymology will be also studied. Students will be induced to develop a critical approach in the study.
Knowledge of the biomolecules and of the metabolism. Understanding of the role of photosynthesis in the production of foods. Acquisition of a study method that improves the learning ability and independence of judgment. Improvement of the ability of communication.
I Principi di Biochimica di Lehninger, Nelson e Cox, Ed. Zanichelli.
Introduzione alla Biochimica, Lehninger, Nelson e Cox, Ed. Zanichelli.
Le Basi della Biochimica, Champe, Harvey, Ferrier, Ed. Zanichelli.
“Biochimica e biologia molecolare delle piante”, Bob B Buchanan Wilhelm Gruissem Russell Jones, Zanichelli.
Verification takes place through a written and an oral test. The written test, lasting 45 minutes, consists of 15 open-ended questions (2 points for each correct answer) and allows, if passed (with a minimum score of 18/30), admission to the oral exam. The oral exam lasts about 30 minutes and evaluates the students’ attitude to problem solving concerning covered topics.
Biomolecules, structure and catalysis (2 CFU):
Water, weak bonds, interactions between biomolecules. Carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and peptide bond. Structure of proteins and enzymes. Vitamins and CoE, Michaelis-Menten equation and kinetic parameters, factors that influence the rate of an enzymatic reaction. Enzymatic regulation of metabolism. Compartmentation, biological membranes and transport mechanisms.
Main pathways in plant systems (2 CFU):
General metabolism in autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms, ΔG, ATP. The plant cell, similarities and differences with respect to the animal cell. General information on photosynthesis, pigments, reaction centres, photosynthetic electron chain, photophosphorylation, Rubisco, Calvin cycle and starch synthesis. C4 and CAM, Photorespiration. Glyoxylate cycle.
Others metabolic pathways (2.5 CFU):
Glycolysis, the pentose P cycle, fatty acid catabolism, catabolism of amino acid and urea production, pyruvate dehydrogenase and Krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation. Gluconeogenesis, synthesis of fatty acids. Metabolism of glycogen.
Flux of genetic information (0.5 CFU):
Nucleobases and nucleotides, DNA, RNA, the genetic role of DNA, duplication, transcription, translation: genetic code and protein synthesis.
Numerical exercises in the classroom (1 CFU):
Linearization of Michaelis and Menten equation, enzymatic inhibitions, energy balances related to the oxidation of glucose and palmitic acid.