Introduction. Thermodynamics. Conformational analysis and stereochemistry. Main functional groups (alkanes, alkenes, aromatic compounds, alkyl halides, alcohols, ethers, carbonyl compounds, amines, carboxylic compounds). Molecules of biological and food interest (carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, amino acids, food colloids).
J. McMurry, “Chimica organica. Un approccio biologico”, Zanichelli, ISBN 8808066932. Notes taken independently during the course.
1 - Introduction (Elements of thermodynamics: enthalpy, entropy, free energy. Chemical kinetics: kinetic equations, activation energy, catalysis. Resonance). 0.5 CFU.
2 - Alkanes (Nomenclature and physical properties. Formulas. Cycloalkanes. Radical halogenation. Auto-oxidation). Conformational analysis (Newman, Fischer's structures. Energy diagrams. Conformational analysis in linear and cyclic molecules). Stereochemistry (Optical activity, chirality. Enantiomers, diastereomers, meso structures). Alkenes (Nomenclature and physical properties. Cis/trans and Z/E isomery. Carbocations: structure and reactivity. Reactions with: H2, HX (X = Br, Cl), H2O/H2SO4, X2 (X = Br, Cl). Allyl halogenation). 1 CFU.
3 - Aromatic compounds (Benzene. Aromaticity. Resonance. Notes on heteroaromatic compounds). Alkyl halides (Reactions: SN1, SN2, E1, E2. Nucleophilicity, basicity). Alcohols and phenols (Nomenclature and physical properties. Reactions of O-H bond, acidity and oxidation, and C-O bond, dehydration. Thiols. Ethers (Nomenclature and physical properties). 1 CFU.
4 - Aldehydes and ketones (Nomenclature and physical properties. Reactions with: H2, hydrides, H2O, ROH, RNH2. Oxidation of aldehydes). Amines (Nomenclature and physical properties. Basicity. Quaternary ammonium salts). Carboxylic acids and derivatives (Nomenclature and physical properties. Acidity. Esters and amides: acid and basic hydrolysis). 1 CFU.
5 - Carbohydrates (Classification. Monosaccharides. Glucose. Reaction of monosaccharides with: Br2, ROH, HNO3, NaBH4. Reducing sugars. Hemiacetal and acetal structures, anomers, mutarotation. Haworth and conformational structures, pyranose and furanose forms. Mannose, galactose, fructose and ribose Disaccharides: maltose, cellobiose, lactose and sucrose Polysaccharides: starch and cellulose). Lipids (Fatty acids: properties and auto-oxidation reaction. Triglycerides, hydrolysis and hydrogenation reaction. Natural and synthetic detergents, micelle formation. Phospholipids, formation of double layers. Terpenes, isoprenic rule. Steroids, nomenclature. Waxes). Nucleic acids (Nucleotides and nucleosides. Purine and pyrimidine bases. Structure of DNA and RNA). Amino acids and proteins (Amino acids: structure, titration, isoelectric point. Acid-base behavior of amino acids). Food colloids (Emulsions, foams, dispersions, suspensions, gels). 1 CFU.
6 - Classroom exercises. Exercises will consist in the explanation of questions present in the written tests of the previous academic years. The questions, which will be available to students in advance, will be chosen to cover all topics (1 CFU).