Basic knowledge of chemistry, biochemistry and applied physics.
Face to face lesson, classroom and laboratory exercitations, guided visits
The teaching educational scheme includes an introductory part focused on the molecular and physical-chemical principles of interaction between ingredients with the aim to provide the basic tools for the study of organoleptic properties of culinary preparations.
In the second part of the course the individual ingredients, including additives, are studied and the innovative systems for the treatment of ingredients are discussed. Also organoleptic and nutritional characteristics of culinary preparations will be considered. Finally, a systematic study, even if not exhaustive, of the recipes is included in order to provide the three-year graduate with a skill that can be used in the field of innovative catering and in respect of the Italian culinary tradition.
Within the scientific and technical knowledge on the gastronomy, this teaching program provides useful tools to i) understand scientific principles of functional properties of ingredients and of their interaction ii) understand culinary preparations, transformations due to cooking and the influence of ingredients on sense perception.
The student will know the main functional properties of ingredients, physical-chemical mechanisms of their interactions and the scientific reasons for their selection.
1. La scienza in cucina. Piccolo trattato di gastronomia molecolare. Autore This Hervé. 2010. Editore: Dedalo (collana La scienza è facile)
2. Manuale di cucina molecolare. di Anne Cazor, Christine Lienard. Editore: Bibliotheca Culinaria
3. Food Chemistry. Belitz, Grosch. Editore: Springer
Basic macromolecule of food: water, fat, protein and carbohydrates (0.5 CFU). Chemistry and physics of molecules: interaction and modifiable factors that affect the interaction acid / base, oxidation and changes related to heat and cold (0.5 CFU).
Backgrounds on taste, flavor and other sensory characteristics (0.5 CFU). Physical and chemical characteristics of dairy products such as milk, cream and yoghurt (0.5 CFU).
Effect of freshness on coagulation of egg proteins in function of time, temperature and pH. Factors influencing the volume and stability of the foams egg (face to face lessons 0.5 CFU, exercitations 0,25 CFU). Maillard reactions and caramelization reactions (0.5 CFU). Changes of muscle proteins as affected by meat tenderizing and by preparation methods: roasting, frying, grilling, stewing and braising (0.5 CFU). Additives: structure and functions (0.8 CFU).
Physical and chemical changes that occur during storage and processing of vegetables. Enzymatic browning , the role of pH , osmosis, and other factors affecting the sensory characteristics of vegetable preparations (0.5 CFU) .
Factors affecting gelatinization of starch. Factors that influence the production of CO2 by the yeast and the effect on the protein structure of the dough (face to face lessons 0.5 CFU, guided visits 0.5 CFU). Effect of various types of raising agents for the preparation of batters and cakes. The rise of the dough by incorporating air into egg whites , or through the steam produced by the melting of the fat (face to face lessons 0.5 CFU, exercitations 0.25 CFU). Spherification, culinary process for shaping a liquid into spheres which visually and structurally similar to caviar (face to face lessons 0.2 CFU, exercitations 0.25 CFU).