Basic knowledge about general, inorganic and organic chemistry.
Frontal lessons (5 credits, for the acquisition of knowledge) and laboratory exercises (1 credits, to apply the knowledge).
Lipids. Vitamins. Carbohydrates. Amino acids, Peptides. Dyes. Aroma substances. Water. Minerals. Analytical techniques in the food field.
Basic notions about the nature, structure, properties and chemical behavior of certain classes of food substances.
Knowledge and understanding. The student will have to know the chemistry of food constituents and understand their role in nutrition.
Ability to apply knowledge and understanding. The student must be able to recognize the classes of compounds present in biological systems and in foods, predicting their reactivity, understand the effect of the nutrients and foods mentioned above on the consumer and must apply this knowledge to the autonomous design of foods with desired properties.
Judgment autonomy. The student must be able to understand and critically discuss the mechanism of reactions that occur in food.
Communication skills. The student will have to demonstrate that he can communicate effectively and with the correct terminology in order to transmit his knowledge and skills to others.
Learning ability. The student must acquire a study method that improves capacity and autonomy and must be able to read, understand and comment on a scientific text in the chemical-food sector.
P. Cappelli, V. Vannucchi “Chimica degli alimenti”, 3° edizione, Zanichelli, ISBN 8808-07589-3. Lecture notes must supplement the texts.
The learning verification consists of a partial written test consisting of five open-ended questions; time available to the student: 90 minutes. The written test is considered passed with a score of at least 15/30.
Once the written test has passed, there will be a subsequent evaluation by the examining commission with an oral part.
The purpose of the test is to determine the level of specific knowledge reached by the student with respect to the fundamental concepts for understanding the reactions that occur in food.
Saponifiable lipids. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, melting point. Isomerization. Triglycerides. Saponification. Micelles and soaps. Hydrogenation on metal. Oxidative rancidity, triplet and singlet oxygen. Radical degradation, formation of aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, epoxides. Termination reactions, Diels-Alder reaction, polymerization. Phenol type antioxidants, ascorbic acid and carotenoids. Phospholipid bilayer. Sphingolipids.
Non-saponifiable lipids. Terpenes. Tocopherols. Steroids.
Vitamins. Lipo- and water-soluble vitamins, structure, food sources, physiological aspects, deficiency symptoms.
Monosaccharides. D-Glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone and generation of hexoses. Fischer, Haworth and conformational structures. Anomers, mutarotation, reducing sugars, analysis. Reduction with NaBH4, sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol. Oxidation with Br2, formation of aldonic acids. Oxidation with HNO3, aldaric acids. Meso forms. Alduronic acids. Protecting groups. Reaction of monosaccharides in mild acid condition, formation of oligosaccharides. Reactions in strong acid condition, dehydration, enolization, isomerization. Retro-aldol condensation. Reaction between carbonyl compounds and primary amines. Amadori compound from glucose. Heyns compound from fructose. Formation of HMF. Formation of pyrroles. Strecker reaction, formation of volatile aldehydes and pyrazines. Formation of glycosides. Reactions of esterification, etherification, halogenation, cleavage with periodic acid.
Polysaccharides. Reducing and non-reducing sugars. Disaccharides: cellobiose, lactose, maltose, sucrose. Hydrolysis of sucrose. Polysaccharides (reserve, support, complex). Starch, amylose and amylopectin. Other polysaccharides reserve. Overview of fibers (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, gums, algal polysaccharides).
Amino acids. Configuration, classification. Reactions of the carboxyl group, esterification. Reaction of the amino group, formation of amides and alkylation. Sanger reaction, nucleophilic aromatic substitution. Edman reaction. Reaction with ninhydrin. Examples of reactions of specific amino acids. Amino acid synthesis, formation and reaction of α-haloacid, malonic synthesis, use of potassium phthalimide, Strecker synthesis. Resolution of racemic mixtures.
Peptides. Synthesis (protection N-terminal, C-terminal protection, activation CO2H). Solid phase synthesis. Peptide analysis. Action of proteins (stabilizers, gelling agents). Reactions in a basic environment, racemization.
Dyes. Color theory, conjugated systems. Chromophore groups. UV-Vis spectrum and color. Dyes and pigments.
Aroma substances. Salt, NaCl and dipeptides. Sweet, units of flavor. Glucose, galactose, amino acids. Hydrophobic receptor. Alditols. Saccharin, synthesis. Cyclamate, nitroaniline, urea, guanidine. Aspartame, stability and synthesis. Alitame. Thaumatin.
Water. Chemical-physical characteristics, water in food, activity in food, water for human consumption, mineral water.
Minerals. Presence in the organism, biological functions, dietary requirements and sources of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, sulfur, chlorine, iron, zinc, copper, chromium, manganese, cobalt, selenium, iodine, fluorine and molybdenum.
Analytical techniques in the food field. Analytical methods for determining food quality and safety.