Basics of physics. Direct and indirect measurements, fundamental and derived quantities, physical dimensions of the quantities, knowledge of the decimal metric system and of the Units of Measure Systems. Vectors and vector operations. Vector composition of forces. State changes and latent heats. First and second principles of thermodynamics. Notes on elementary optical phenomena. Electrostatics and electrodynamics: Coulomb's law. Field and electric potential.
Mathematics bases. Monomes and polynomials. Factoring and algebraic fractions. Power with integer, fractional and real exponent (properties of operations with powers). First and second degree equations. Systems of equations. Inequalities. Logarithms (properties of operations with logarithms). Logarithmic and exponential equations. Cartesian coordinates.
Frontal lessons (5 credits, for the acquisition of knowledge) and classroom exercises (1 credits, to apply the knowledge).
Carbon atom. Resonance. Chemical kinetics. Stereochemistry. Main functional groups. Some classes of molecules of biological interest.
With reference to the specific educational objectives of the CdS, the course will provide basic knowledge of organic chemistry so that the student will be able to acquire the fundamentals of basic microbiology, food and industrial, knowledge and skills related to food production. plants and animals, knowledge and skills on traditional and innovative food technologies.
Knowledge and understanding. The student should know the fundamental principles of organic chemistry so that, starting from the study of functional groups in simple molecules, he will be able to understand the reactions that occur in biological systems and in food, functional groups in simple organic molecules, reactivity of compounds organics and products generated in biological systems and in food.
Ability to apply knowledge and understanding. The student should be able to assign the IUPAC name to organic molecules, recognize the various types of chemical reactions and complete reaction schemes.
Judgment autonomy. The student should be able to understand and critically discuss the mechanism of organic chemistry reactions.
Communication skills. The student should be able to demonstrate that he can communicate effectively and with the correct terminology.
Learning ability. The student should be able to read, understand and comment on a scientific text of organic chemistry.
One of the following: McMurry, J. “Fondamenti di chimica organica”, Zanichelli, ISBN 9788808061317; McMurry, J. “Chimica organica. Un approccio biologico”, Zanichelli, ISBN 8808066932; Botta, B. “Chimica organica essenziale”, Edi-ermes, ISBN 9788870513547. The texts must be supplemented by lecture notes.
The exam consists of a single written test; time available to the student: 75 minutes.
The purpose is determining the level of specific knowledge reached by the student, especially with regard to fundamental concepts for understanding the reactions that occur in biological systems and in food.
The exam consists of 36 multiple choice questions, divided into two groups.
The first group consists of 28 questions, on topics of "General Organic Chemistry"; the second group consists of 8 questions on topics of "Organic Biological Chemistry". To pass the test, at least 4 questions from the second group must be answered correctly.
The same score is attributed to each correct answer; no score is attributed to any missing or wrong answer.
Introduction. Carbon atom, sp3, sp2, sp hybridization. Intermolecular bonds: dipole-dipole, hydrogen, van der Waals bond. Elements of thermodynamics: enthalpy, entropy, free energy. Chemical kinetic: kinetic equation, activation energy, catalysis. Acidity, Brønsted and Lewis acid.
Conformational analysis. Newman and Fischer formulas. Energy diagrams. Conformational analysis in linear and cyclic molecules.
Stereochemistry. Optical activity, chirality. Enantiomers, diastereomers, meso structures. Configuration R,S and D,L. Resolution racemic mixtures.
Alkanes. Nomenclature and physical properties. Cycloalkanes. Radical halogenation.
Alkenes. Nomenclature and physical properties. Carbocations: structure and reactivity. Reactivity with: H2, HX (X = Br, Cl), H2O/H2SO4, X2 (X = Br, Cl), KMnO4, OsO4, peroxyacids. Allylic halogenations. Conjugated dienes: 1,2- and 1,4-addition.
Alkynes. Nomenclature, reaction with H2 and X2.
Aromatic compounds. Benzene. Aromaticity, Hückel rule. Resonance. Electrophilic aromatic substitution: nitration, sulfonation, halogenation, Friedel-Crafts acylation and alkylation. Benzene derivatives: structure and reactivity. Rate and regioselectivity. Inductive and conjugative effect. Oxidation of alkylbenzenes with KMnO4. Reduction of nitrobenzene with Fe/HCl.
Alkyl halides. Reactions: SN1, SN2, E1, E2. Nucleophilicity, basicity. Grignard reagents.
Alcohols and phenols. Nomenclature and physical properties. Acid-base reactions, oxidation, dehydration, chlorination and esterification reactions. Thiols.
Ethers. Nomenclature and physical properties. Epoxides: ring-opening reactions.
Aldehydes and ketones. Nomenclature and physical properties. Reactivity with: H2, hydrides, Grignard reagents, HCN, H2O, ROH, NH2R. Aldehydes: oxidation.
Amines. Nomenclature and physical properties. Basicity. Quaternary ammonium salts. Reaction of primary amines with HNO2. Diazonium salts.
Carboxylic acids and derivatives. Nomenclature and physical properties. Acidity of carboxylic acids. Synthesis and reactions of acid chlorides, anhydrides, esters, amides. Saponification of esters. Reduction with LiAlH4. Amides, physical properties. Nitriles, acid and basic hydrolysis.
Enols. Acidity of carbonyl compounds. Keto-enol tautomerism. Aldol and Claisen condensation.
Bifunctional compounds. Amino acids, hydroxy acids, keto acids and dicarboxylic acids. Carbonyl compounds, decarboxylation. Acetoacetic and malonic ester synthesis.
Heterocyclic compounds. Pyrrole: aromaticity, acidity and basicity, electrophilic aromatic substitution. Pyridine: basicity, nucleophilic and electrophilic aromatic substitution. Imidazole: acidity and basicity. Purine and pyrimidine.
Carbohydrates. Classification. Monosaccharides. Glucose. Reaction of monosaccharides with: NH2NHPh, Br2, HNO3, NaBH4, ROH. Reducing sugars. Lengthening and shortening of the chain. Hemiacetals and acetals, alpha and beta anomers, mutarotation. Haworth and conformational formulas, furanose and pyranose forms. Mannose, galactose, fructose and ribose. Disaccharides: maltose, cellobiose, lactose and sucrose. Polysaccharides: starch and cellulose.
Lipids. Fatty acids, autooxidation. Triglycerides, hydrolysis and hydrogenation. Natural and synthetic detergents, micelle formation. Phospholipids, formation of bilayers. Terpenes, isoprene unit. Steroids, nomenclature. Prostaglandins. Waxes.
Nucleic acids. Nucleotides and nucleosides. Purine and pyrimidine bases. DNA and RNA.
Amino acids and proteins. Amino acids: structure, titration, isoelectric point. Acidic and basic amino acids. Peptides: synthesis, protecting and activating groups. Analysis of peptides, determination of the amino acid N-and C-terminal Edman method, determination of the sequence.
Classroom exercises. The exercises consist in the explanation and comment of some questions present in the written tests of the previous academic years. The questions, which are available to students in advance of the tutorial, are chosen to co