Basic Knowledge on Biology
Traditional with the aid of power point presentations directly in the classroom
The main contents of this teaching concern the study of plant cells, plant tissues and organs, as well as their functions. Fundamental concepts regarding plant development will be given through transport mechanisms and plant hormone production.
The aim of this course is to provide to student basic information about cytology, histology, anatomy and plant physiology by studying the plant cell and organs.
Particularly, the student must acquire knowledge in order to distinguish plant herbaceous and tree, Angiosperm and Gymnosperm, on the basis of microscopic and macroscopic features.
Knowledge and understanding:
The student will acquire the necessary knowledge concerning the structural and morpho-functional characteristics, the mechanisms of sexual and asexual reproduction. This knowledge acquired by the student will be the necessary basis for addressing the study related to plant production.
Ability to apply knowledge and understanding:
The student must be able to know the key elements for the recognition of plants through the study of the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit and seed. With these basics, the student will be able to make the first distinctions between Liliopsida and Magnioliopsida plants both macroscopically and microscopically.
Autonomy of judgment: the student possessing the basic knowledge of general botany, will be able to define the belonging of a botanical species to a specific taxonomic class through direct observation, of the root, of the leaf, of the fruit and eventually of the seed.
Communication skills: the development of communication skills will be promoted through the achievement of a full mastery of the technical-scientific terminology related to the systematic framing of the different botanical species, to the methods of macroscopic and microscopic observation. This skill will be developed also through the discussion in the classroom through the direct observation of some plant samples, and the final oral exam.
Learning skills: the student's learning ability will be stimulated through power point presentations, the discussion in the classroom of case studies, the observation of the stereomicroscope and the optical microscope of fresh and permanent preparations of plant structures, such as cross-sections of plant stems Liliopsida and Magnoliopsida.
- Botanica generale e diversità vegetale - G. Pasqua, G. Abbate, C. Forni, ed Piccin.
- Fondamenti di Botanica - S. Pancaldi, ed McGraw-Hill.
- Biologia e diversità dei vegetali – M. Gerola, ed. Utet
- Botanica delle piante alimentari – C. Rinallo, ed. Piccin.
- Elementi di fisiologia vegetale – L.Taiz, E. Zeiger, Piccin.
- Elementi di Biologia Vegetale (botanica generale), Oreste Arrigoni, 1989. Casa editrice ambrosiana, Milano.
- Struttura delle piante in immagini – A. Speranza, G. L. Calzoni, ed. Zanichelli.
- Notes taken independently in class. Teaching material provided during the lesson by the teacher, on specific topics.
Oral exam: the student will be invited to answer 3-4 main questions on basic topics of general botany. The expected duration of the oral exam will be about 30 minutes.
The expository clarity and the property of language will also be evaluated.
The final mark consists of a summary of the evaluations of all the topics presented by the student. In case of an insufficient level of learning, the student is invited to deepen the topics in which it is lacking, also taking advantage of further explanations by the teacher.
THE PLANT CELL: main differences between plant cell and animal cell. Cell theory, cell wall (genesis, composition and function of the median lamella, primary, secondary, tertiary), the plasma membrane (Theory of genesis and physico-chemical composition). The cytoplasm and cellular organelles. Plastids (proplastids, chloroplasts, leukoplasts, chromoplasts, etioplasts) and Vacuoles (genesis, composition and function). [0.5 ECTS]
PLANT TISSUES: Tegumental, meristematic (primary and secondary) tissues, parenchymatic (aeriferous, aquiferous, chlorophyll and reserve), mechanical (collenchym and sclerenchym), conductive (xylematic and phloematic and secretory) [0.25 ECTS]
ROOT: Generality, anatomy and root function in primary (actinostele) and secondary structure. Macroscopic and microsopic differences between 'Liliopsida' and 'Magnoliopsida' plants [0,5 ECTS]
STEM: Generality on the apical bud and the stem (monopodial branching, sympodial ‘dicasio’ and ‘monocasio’), anatomy, structure and function of the stem in primary structure (eustele, atactostele) and secondary (wood spring and summer, wood eteroxilo and homoxilo). [1,25 ECTS]
LEAF: Generalities, genesis, structure and function of the leaves. Classification of the leaves and their modifications. [0.5 ECTS]
FLOWER AND THE FRUIT: general information on the anatomical characteristics of the flower, the embryo and the seed. Microsporogenesis, microgametogenesis, macrosporogenesis, macrogametogenesis, pollination, fertilization, embryo formation (embryogenesis), fruit and seed development. Classification of fruits and seeds. THE SEED: Germination of the seed and ontogenetic cycle of the plant. [1,25 ECTS]
MINERAL NUTRITION, TRANSPORT AND WATER POTENTIAL: macroelements and microelements. Diffusion (Fick's law), osmosis, passive, facilitated and active transports. Membrane potentials. Absorption and assimilation of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. The water potential of the plant cell (plasmolysis), potential matrix and water capacity of the soil. Transport mechanism of raw lymph and processed lymph. [0.75 ECTS]
PLANT HORMONES: Auxin, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Ethylene, abscisic acid. Photoperiodism. [0.25 ECTS]
LABORATORY EXERCISES. The root, the stem, the leaf: mechanical, trophic and reserve functions. Microscopic structure in Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons plants. Morpho-functional characteristics of the flower, of the fruit and of the seed. Types of food seeds. [0.75 ECTS]