Fundamental of mathematics. Monomes and polynomials. Fractions. Fractional and real exponent (operations with exponents). First and second degree equations. Systems of equations. Inequalities. Logarithms (properties of operations with logarithms). Logarithmic and exponential equations. Cartesian reference and coordinates of a point.
Physics basics. Electromagnetism, kinetics, statics. Physical laws of gases.
General properties and chemical classification of the matter. Chemical bonding. Reaction stoichiometry. Nomenclature (classical and IUPAC). Observable properties of gases and empirical laws. Solid and liquid phases.
The chemical equilibrium. Theory of titrations. Acid-base titrations.
Principles of spectroscopy.
Principles of chromatography
With reference to the specific training objectives of the degree course, this program aims to provide basic knowledge of general and analytical chemistry so that the student is able to acquire the basic and advanced foundations and skills in the following learning areas:
quality of food productions;
food technology and plant engineering;
Knowledge and understanding. The student will know the fundamental principles of general and analytical chemistry, in order to be able to deal with the study of the chemical-physical functional properties of raw materials and processed products with suitable cognitive tools. Knowledge of the most common techniques of modern instrumental analytical chemistry, and familiarity with the principles of analytical chemistry, which ensure the ability to choose and solve the problems encountered in the technology and analysis laboratories of food products.
Ability to apply knowledge and understanding. The student must be able to give the IUPAC and traditional name to inorganic molecules, recognize the various types of chemical reactions, complete reaction schemes, and have basic information on the physical states of matter, on the atomic and molecular structure, on intra bonds and intermolecular, on the properties of gases, on solutions and on pH.
Judgment autonomy. The student must be able to understand and recognize molecules, reactions, properties of solutions, physical states of matter, the study of pH. The student must be able to evaluate the most suitable analytical technique for a given analysis, according to the characteristics of the analyte and the matrix. He must also be able to critically evaluate the results obtained from the analyses to provide qualitative and quantitative data relating to the samples analysed.
Communication skills. The student will have to demonstrate that he can communicate effectively and with the correct terminology.
Learning ability. The student must be able to read, understand and comment on a general chemistry scientific text.
Elementi di Chimica, Autore: Palmisano – Schiavello, Ed. EDISES
Chimica Analitica Quantitativa, Autore: Skoog – West, Ed. EDISES
The books should be integrated with lecture notes, taken independently by the student
The learning verification will be carried out by a written test consisting of ten questions with multiple answers on the topics of the lessons.
In written test is passed, the student must subsequently undergo to an oral test which will consist of three questions on theoretical topics.
The purpose of the test is to ascertain the level of specific knowledge reached by the student, evaluate the ability to orientate oneself in the problems dealt with, evaluate the skills acquired in relation to the proposal of solutions to the problems being studied.
1 Atomic structure (6 hours). The atom and the atomic structure; Bohr model and quantum theory; Electromagnetic radiation and wave theory; Quantum and orbital numbers; Electron spin and Pauli principle; Principle of maximum multiplicity; Polyelectronic atoms and the Aufbau mechanism; Periodic table; Electronic affinity and ionization potential.
2 Chemical bonds (6 hours). Bond energy; Covalent bond; Electronegativity, bond polarity and dipole moment; Electrostatic bonds: ionic, hydrogen and Van der Waals forces; Lewis structures; Formal offices; Resonance; Valence bond theory (VB); Hybridization; VSEPR model; Molecular geometry and polarity; Delocalized electron bonds; Molecular orbital theory; Metallic bond.
3 Nomenclature, Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry (8 ore).
Molecules and ions; Oxidation number and valence; Nomenclature; Atomic and molecular mass; Atomic and molecular mass; Percentage composition; Determination of the formula; Dissociation reactions; Acid-base reactions; Precipitation reactions; Complexation reactions; Oxido-reduction reactions; Electronic, charge and mass balance; Limiting reagent and stoichiometric calculations.
4 The Gaseous State (4 ore).
The gaseous state; The ideal gases; Boyle's law; Charles's law; Avogadro's law; ideal gas law; Dalton's law; Molar fraction and pressure.
5 The chemical equilibrium (8 ore).
Factors that influence balance and balance shift; Le Chatelier principle; Van't Hoff equation; acids and bases: definitions of Arrhenius, Bronsted, Lewis; acid-base reactions and conjugated couples; ionic product of water; definition of the pH scale; definition of Ka and Kb, acid-base reactions of some salts of weak acids and bases; buffer solutions. Acid base titration.
6 Molecular absorption spectrophotometry (8 hours). Electromagnetic radiation properties; the absorption process and Beer's law; instrumental components for the measurement of absorption; types of spectrometers; quantitative and qualitative analysis; applications.
7 Chromatography (8 hours).
Column chromatography; solute migration rate; efficiency and resolution of a column; gas-liquid chromatography; high performance liquid chromatography; qualitative and quantitative chromatographic analyses; evaluation and optimization of analysis procedures; applications.
8 Classroom exercises (8 ore). The exercises consist in the explanation and comment of exercises related to the course topics.
9 Laboratory exercise (4 ore). Acid base titration. Standardization of a hydrochloric acid solution. Standardization of a sodium hydroxide solution. Determination of the acidity of a table vinegar.