Mathematics bases. Monomes and polynomials. Factoring and algebraic fractions. Power with integer, fractional and real exponent (properties of operations with powers). First and second degree equations. Systems of equations. Inequalities. Logarithms (properties of operations with logarithms). Logarithmic and exponential equations. Cartesian coordinates.
Frontal lessons (4.5 credits, for the acquisition of knowledge) and laboratory exercises (0.5 credits, to apply the knowledge).
Carbon atom. Resonance. Chemical kinetics. Stereochemistry. Main functional groups. Some classes of molecules of biological interest.
With reference to the specific educational objectives of the CdS, the course aims to provide basic chemistry knowledge so that the student is able to acquire the basic and advanced foundations and skills in the following learning areas:
- food microbiology;
- quality of food production of animal and vegetable origin;
- food technology and plant engineering;
- food safety.
Knowledge and understanding. The student should know the basic principles of chemistry in order to be able to deal with the study of the chemical-physical functional properties of the ingredients, their interaction and the temperature effect during cooking, the physical principles of the various cooking techniques and the link between the coupling of ingredients and stimulation of the senses.
Ability to apply knowledge and understanding. The student should be able to give IUPAC and traditional names, recognize the various types of chemical reactions, complete reaction schemes, and have basic information on the physical states of matter, the atomic and molecular structure, the intra and intermolecular bond, the properties of gases, solutions and pH.
Judgment autonomy. The student should be able to understand and recognize molecules, reactions, properties of solutions, physical states of matter, the study of pH.
Communication skills. The student should be able to demonstrate that he can communicate effectively and with the correct terminology.
Learning ability. The student should be able to read, understand and comment on scientific texts of general and organic chemistry.
J. McMurry, “Chimica organica. Un approccio biologico”, Zanichelli, ISBN 8808066932.
The text must be supplemented by lecture notes.
The exam consists of a single written test; time available to the student: 120 minutes.
The test will ascertain the level of specific knowledge of the student, evaluate ability and skills acquired in relation to the proposal of solutions to the problems being studied.
The verification is a written test consisting of multiple choice questions, on the topics of the lessons and any other teaching activities carried out (exercises, seminars, etc.).
The questions are divided into two groups: one group (10 questions) on "General Chemistry", one group (10 questions) on "Organic Chemistry".
"1" for each correct answer;
"0" for each missing answer;
"-0.25" for each wrong answer.
Introduction. Elements of thermodynamics: enthalpy, entropy, free energy. Chemical kinetic: kinetic equation, activation energy, catalysis. Resonance. 0.5 CFU.
Alkanes. Nomenclature and physical properties. Cycloalkanes. Radical halogenation. Autooxidation. Conformational analysis. Newman and Fischer formulas. Energy diagrams. Conformational analysis in linear and cyclic molecules. Stereochemistry. Optical activity, chirality. Enantiomers, diastereomers, meso structures. Alkenes. Nomenclature and physical properties. Carbocations: structure and reactivity. Reactivity with: H2, HX (X = Br, Cl), H2O,/H2SO4, X2 (X = Br, Cl). Allylic halogenation. 1 CFU.
Aromatic compounds. Benzene. Aromaticity, Hückel rule. Resonance. Heteroaromatic compounds. Alkyl halides. Reactions: SN1, SN2, E1, E2. Nucleophilicity, basicity. Alcohols and phenols. Nomenclature and physical properties. Acid-base reactions, oxidation, dehydration, chlorination and esterification reactions. Thiols. Ethers. Nomenclature and physical properties. 1 CFU.
Aldehydes and ketones. Nomenclature and physical properties. Reactivity with: H2, hydrides, H2O, ROH, NH2R. Aldehydes: oxidation. Amines. Nomenclature and physical properties. Basicity. Quaternary ammonium salts. Carboxylic acids and derivatives. Nomenclature and physical properties. Acidity of carboxylic acids. Esters and, amides: physical properties, acid and basic hydrolysis. 1 CFU.
Carbohydrates. Classification. Monosaccharides. Glucose. Reaction of monosaccharides with: Br2, HNO3, NaBH4, ROH. Reducing sugars. Hemiacetals and acetals, alpha and beta anomers, mutarotation. Haworth and conformational formulas, furanose and pyranose forms. Disaccharides: maltose, cellobiose, lactose and sucrose. Polysaccharides: starch and cellulose. Lipids. Fatty acids, autooxidation. Triglycerides, hydrolysis and hydrogenation. Natural and synthetic detergents, micelle formation. Phospholipids, formation of bilayers. Terpenes, isoprene unit. Steroids, nomenclature. Waxes. Nucleic acids. Nucleotides and nucleosides. Purine and pyrimidine bases. DNA and RNA. Amino acids and proteins. Amino acids: structure, titration, isoelectric point. Acidic and basic amino acids. Food Colloids. Emulsions, foams, suspensions and gels. 1 CFU.
Classroom exercises. Exercises consist in explanation and comment of selected questions present in the written tests of the previous academic years. The questions, which are available to students in advance of the tutorial, are chosen to cover all topics. 0. 5 CFU.